So why is Elizabeth Bennet so poor?
How many times in Pride and Prejudice does Elizabeth Bennet’s mother, Mrs Bennet, shriek:
“Mr Bennet, my poor nerves!”
What on earth happened to her nerves? Well, probably lots of things. But foremost in her mind was the fact that she has five single daughters, including Elizabeth Bennet, to marry off before their father dies and leaves them poor old maids relying on family charity.
But, why are her daughters so poor? And, why does it seem so unlikely that anyone will want to marry them? And what does any of this have to do with Mr. Collins?
Those are great questions! Let’s take a closer look.
So, why are Elizabeth Bennet and her sisters so poor and why does that make it hard to marry them off? In short, they have incredibly small dowries.
You might be familiar with the term dowries from the first episode of Dashie Notes where we talked about Regency Economics 101. A Dowery is the amount of money and property that a lady brings to her husband at marriage. Today, we’ll be taking a closer look at them.
We’ll be answering these three important questions about doweries:
- Where does the dowery money come from?
- How do dowries affect marriage?
- How do dowries affect being an old maid?
In Regency England, a girls dowery, or fortune, was very important. The more money a girl had in a her dowery the better for attracting husbands and supporting herself after her parents died, as we’ll discuss later.
Like many families today who have college savings funds for their daughters, families of Regency England saved and acquired money for a girls future marriage. They did this through three major ways.
First, the mother’s dowery.
The mother of a regency family had a dowery when she got married and they started their family. As we learned in Episode 1 of Dashie Notes, her Dowery money was most likely invested in the bank and they used the interest as extra family income. However, the mother’s dowery also becomes a source of her daughter’s dowries. After the mother dies, her dowery will be divided up among her daughters, providing them with a good start to their own fortunes.
This is the case in Pride and Prejudice. Mrs Bennet’s dowery is 5,000 pounds —which is a pretty decent sized dowery. However, since she has 5 daughters, they stand to inherit only 1,000 pounds a piece. A very, very small dowery.
Second, from the family estate.
The second way that a family can save for their daughters dowries is to break up the land estate. For example, if the father sells a field to a farmer, he can use that money to add to his daughters doweries. However, this is not a popular method because it weakens the oldest son’s inheritance and broke up the family’s legacy. Not to mention, if you’ve watched the second episode of Dashie Notes, you already know that was often illegal too because many of the estates were protected by entails.
However, some heiresses, such as Miss Anne De Bourgh in Pride and Prejudice stand to inherit their father’s entire estate as part of their fortune.
This is one of the best methods of dowery creation for daughters. This is very similar to a college fund in that the family just puts aside a little something every year so that when the daughters come of age they’ll have a respectable fortune.
Of course, saving, then like now, required foresight, dedication and time. Something that not all families had in Regency England.
For example in Pride and Prejudice, Mr. Bennet regrets that he never thought ahead to saving for his daughters.
Meanwhile, in Sense and Sensibility, Mr. Dashwood plans on starting to save his daughters Doweries now that he inherited Norland Park’s income—-but he dies within the year and never has a chance too.
2. How do dowries affect marriage?
Oh Marriage and Money? Why do you so often go together?
Doweries affected marriage because men wanted to marry rich girls. In the world where not having to work meant that you were genteel, men were always looking for a way to increase their family income without stooping to getting a job. Even those semi-gentlemen with a job, like clergymen or military men, wanted to climb the social ladder with a larger income than their current living allowed.
So, in Regency England, how much money made a decent sized dowery that would attract those dashing suitors?
Let’s look at a few examples in Austen’s books.
Elizabeth Bennet has one of the smallest dowries at just 1,000 pounds. That is an extremely small fortune and makes attracting a husband quite difficult. Which is exactly why Mr. Collins expects Lizzy to marry him, because he doesn’t think she’s rich enough to attract anyone else.
On average, many of the girls in Austen’s books have a dowery of between 3,000 to 4,000 pounds — including the Dashwood sisters in Sense and Sensibility, Catherine Morland in Northanger Abbey and Anne Elliot in Persuasion. This isn’t a brilliant amount and makes husband attracting a bit difficult too, but also is somewhat respectable.
Mrs Elton of Emma has 10,000 pounds, which is just about right.
Mary Crawford in Mansfield Park has 20,000 pounds, which definitely makes her marriage material.
Emma Woodhouse has a fortune of 30,000 pounds as does Mr Darcy’s sister, Georgiana. They’re definitely at the top of the marriage market. This is 30 times the size of Elizabeth Bennet’s dowery.
The largest fortune is mentioned in Sense and Sensibility and belongs to a certain Miss Grey—50,000 pounds. Which makes her quite the catch for Mr. Willoughby.— If you want to be caught by Willoughby.
3. How do dowries effect being an old maid ?
Oh, old maid. You were such a real term in Regency England.
Today, the idea of calling women of a certain age who never got married “old maid” is preposterous. Yet, in Jane Austen’s world, old maidenhood was real and all girls wanted to avoid it like the plague. Regency women viewed marriage as the main way of supporting themselves—especially because old maids usually ended up in poverty and relying on charity after their parents died.
However, in comes the dowery. A lady’s fortune made difference between being a poor old maid and rich old maid. As we learned in episode one, a lady could invest her fortune in a bank, and if her fortune was large enough, she could live off the interest.
So, in a way, living off the interest of one’s dowery is a backup plan if the whole marrying a rich guy plan never works out.
Emma Woodhouse’s fortune is so large that she even plans on being an old maid—because she will be rich the rest of her life whether she gets married or not.
Sadly, most old maid’s fortunes were not as large. Especially because if they did have large dowries, chances were they wouldn’t end up old maids to begin with.
So, why are the Bennet sisters so poor? Because they have extremely small fortunes.
They will each only inherit 1,000 pounds—not really enough to attract suitors and definitely not enough to live off of should they end up old maids. If Mr. Darcy and Mr. Bingley never came along and Mr. Bennet died, Elizabeth Bennet and her sisters would have been totally dependent on charity from their relatives.
“Mr Bennet my poor nerves in deed!”